# Author: Philip Emeagwali

** Philip Emeagwali
For School Reports**

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Philip Emeagwali Facts

Philip Emeagwali Lecture Notes

TIME: The “Unsung Hero” Behind the Internet

TIME: The “Unsung Hero” Behind the Internet

- “The Web owes much of its existence to Philip Emeagwali” –

- magazine

- “A father of the Internet” –

“One of the great minds of the Information Age” –

Bill Clinton (The White House)

**Emeagwali**

Voted History’s 35th Greatest African (pdf, html)

- Inducted into gallery of

- greatest black achievers.

- Emeagwali celebrates

- of awards,

- 40 years as “A

- ,” and 25 years on the Internet with a

- , ten-thousand-page weekly series.

** Ten Most-Celebrated Scientists
on Postage Stamps **

Ten Most-Celebrated Fathers of the Computer on Postage Stamps

Ten Most-Celebrated Mathematicians on Postage Stamps

Ten Most-Celebrated

Physicists on Postage Stamps

Ten Most-Celebrated

Black Inventors on Postage Stamps

Ten Most-Celebrated

Scientists on Currencies

Ten Most-Googled Fathers of the Computer

** Top 10
Fathers of the Computer**

- Philip Emeagwali, voted “

- ,”

- is ranked

__#1__

- in

**computing**

- .

- And ranked

__FIRST__

- by Google for “contribution to the development of the computer.”

Philip Emeagwali Lecture Series

- 100 released audio clips from our unreleased speech archive.

** Learning
Philip Emeagwali in Your School**

- Aligned with United States Common Core Standards for “Stories About Scientists”

Biography series and 100 video clips. Philip Emeagwali for Kids series (A total of 250 pages coming in 2016)

**For Kids**:

1. Introduction |

2. Childhood |

3. Primary School |

Timeline |

Photos |

**For Teachers**:

Question Sheets |

Answer Sheets |

Homework |

Philip Emeagwali Week |

Philip Emeagwali’s Box |

Lectures |

http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/emp/external/player.swf

** Ten Highest IQs in the World**

- (IQ

- ) voted more

- than Albert

- (IQ 160).

- Also, ten scientists with the

- .

**Emeagwali in American
Exam Syllabi **

- For his invention of a global network of computers, a.k.a. a primordial internet, and from

- to

- Test (LSAT).

- Homework Tips: Study and

http://w.sharethis.com/widget/?tabs=web%2Cpost%2Cemail&charset=utf-8&style=rotate&publisher=9f0ab9ad-ffb6-4a4f-9d9f-947d069d5876

1000-page

biography and 100 video clips.

**Celebrities Once Homeless**

- Emeagwali a “

- ,” says The United Nations Refugee Agency.

__EMEAGWALI’S EQUATIONS__

** **

Where Did Mathematics Come From?

My Internet is in the Wind

They Call Me “Calculus”

My Supercomputer is a Superinternet

Solve the Problem, Not the Formula!

I Am a

Black Mathematician

__EMEAGWALI POETRY__

** **

A Father of the Internet

A Living Hero Moment

Poetic Portrait of

Dale Emeagwali

Ikenga For Philip Emeagwali

**Philip Emeagwali**

For School Reports

For School Reports

Philip Emeagwali: A Father of the Internet

Philip Emeagwali’s Wife

Philip Emeagwali’s Family

Philip Emeagwali Quotes

Philip Emeagwali Facts

Philip Emeagwali Lecture Notes

TIME: The “Unsung Hero” Behind the Internet

TIME: The “Unsung Hero” Behind the Internet

“The Web owes much of its existence to Philip Emeagwali” – TIME magazine

“A father of the Internet” –

*CNN*

“One of the great minds of the Information Age” –

Bill Clinton (The White House)

**Emeagwali**

** Voted History’s 35th Greatest African (pdf, html)**

Inducted into gallery of history’s 70 greatest black achievers.

Emeagwali celebrates 50 years of awards,

40 years as “A Father of the Internet,” and 25 years on the Internet with a

ten-year, ten-thousand-page weekly series.

**Ten Most-Celebrated Scientists**

on Postage Stamps

on Postage Stamps

Ten Most-Celebrated Fathers of the Computer on Postage Stamps

Ten Most-Celebrated Mathematicians on Postage Stamps

Ten Most-Celebrated

Physicists on Postage Stamps

Ten Most-Celebrated

Black Inventors on Postage Stamps

Ten Most-Celebrated

Scientists on Currencies

Ten Most-Googled Fathers of the Computer

**Top 10**

Fathers of the Computer

Fathers of the Computer

Philip Emeagwali, voted “Father of Supercomputing,”

is ranked

**in**

__#1__**computing**.

And ranked

**by Google for “contribution to the development of the computer.”**

__FIRST__

Philip Emeagwali Lecture Series

Philip Emeagwali Lecture Series

100 released audio clips from our unreleased speech archive.

**Learning**

Philip Emeagwali in Your School

Philip Emeagwali in Your School

Aligned with United States Common Core Standards for “Stories About Scientists”

Biography series and 100 video clips. Philip Emeagwali for Kids series (A total of 250 pages coming in 2016)

**For Kids**:

1. Introduction |

2. Childhood |

3. Primary School |

Timeline |

Photos |

**For Teachers**:

Question Sheets |

Answer Sheets |

Homework |

Philip Emeagwali Week |

Philip Emeagwali’s Box |

Lectures |

http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/emp/external/player.swf

**Ten Highest IQs in the World**

Philip Emeagwali (IQ 190) voted more

intelligent than Albert Einstein (IQ 160).

Also, ten scientists with the highest IQ.

**Emeagwali in American**

Exam Syllabi

Exam Syllabi

For his invention of a global network of computers, a.k.a. a primordial internet, and from

elementary schools

to

Law School Admission Test (LSAT).

Homework Tips: Study and http://w.sharethis.com/widget/?tabs=web%2Cpost%2Cemail&charset=utf-8&style=rotate&publisher=9f0ab9ad-ffb6-4a4f-9d9f-947d069d5876

**Celebrities Once Homeless**

Emeagwali a “Prominent Refugee,” says The United Nations Refugee Agency.

__EMEAGWALI’S EQUATIONS__

<To celebrate

** **

Where Did Mathematics Come From?

My Internet is in the Wind

They Call Me “Calculus”

My Supercomputer is a Superinternet

Solve the Problem, Not the Formula!

I Am a

Black Mathematician

__EMEAGWALI POETRY__

<To celebrate

** **

A Living Hero Moment

Poetic Portrait of

Dale Emeagwali

## The Toughest Problem in Calculus

**Lecture delivered by Philip Emeagwali**

**The Toughest Problem in Calculus**

**TRANSCRIPT**

In 1989, it made the news headlines

that an “African Computer Wizard”

discovered

how to supercompute

at the fastest computer speeds.

It was rare because

one supercomputer

or the world’s fastest computer

costs more than the budget

of a small nation.

I used my supercomputer

to solve the toughest problem

in calculus.

At the granite core

of my mathematical grand challenge

was the system of non-linear

partial differential equations

of infinitesimal calculus

that was impossible to solve.

Those equations cannot be solved

when formulated

to help foresee global warming

or to recover more oil and gas.

By definition,

a system of partial differential equations

cannot be solved directly

on a computer.

The reason is that

the word “differential”

arose from the term “differentialis”

which translates to “taking apart”

or “taking differences.”

For the partial differential equations

of infinitesimal calculus,

such differences are infinitely small.

That is, they yield infinite calculations

that take forever

to completely compute.

A grand challenge problem

that takes foreover to solve

is impossible to solve.

A grand challenge equation

formulated at infinite points in calculus

cannot be solved on a computer,

unless it is reformulated

at finite points in algebra.

That reformulation is necessary

to make the impossible

possible.

If I had taken infinitesimally small differences

the forever impossible

will take forever

to solve, even across

a global network of computers

as large as planet Earth.

To make the impossible

possible,

I had to discretize my continuous

space and time and functions.

I had to use their finite differences.

Finally, I had to use

the finite difference approximations

that I invented

to approximate

the nine partial differential equations

that I invented,

as well as approximate

the other partial differential equations

and equations of state

that were invented

about a century earlier.

I used those finite difference equations

to formulate

my algebraic approximations,

which was the

largest system of algebraic equations

ever solved

on and across

computers.

The computer wizardry was in

consistently telling and retelling

the same story across boards.

I told the story of the motion

of fluids flowing below

or on

or above

the Earth.

I told that story from the storyboard

to the blackboard

to the motherboard

and continuing to the boardroom

to the classroom

to the newsroom

to the living room.

I translated calculus to algebra

to obtain algebraic approximations

that arose from

the finite difference analogue.

On my motherboard

was the analogue

of a partial differential equation

that originated on the blackboard

that was the codification

of a law of physics

that originated in my storyboard.

My Contributions to Calculus

The phrase

“partial differential equations”

was first used in 1845.

I, Philip Emeagwali,

first came across it

in June 1970 in Onitsha, Nigeria,

in my 568-page

blue hardbound textbook titled:

“An Introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus.”

It was subtitled:

“With Applications to Mechanics

and Physics.”

That calculus book was written by

G.W. [George William] Caunt

and published by

Oxford University Press.

A decade earlier,

I began learning the times table

in January 1960

as a five-year-old

at Saint Patrick’s Primary School, Sapele,

in the British West African colony

of Nigeria.

The partial differential equation

of calculus

is not congenial to the fifth grader.

It takes ten years

for a five-year-old

to gain the mathematical maturity

needed to learn calculus.

Because partial differential equations

are the most advanced expressions

in calculus

it will take ten years of training

for that 15-year-old

research mathematician-in-training

to gain the mathematical maturity

needed to discretize a system of

coupled, nonlinear

partial differential equations.

That term “discretize”

is the mathematical lingo

for approximating

a differential equation

defined at infinite points

with corresponding algebraic equations

defined at finite points

that converges to it.

The partial differential equations

that describe the motions of fluids

must be formulated

from the laws of physics.

They must be formulated

from the storyboard

to the blackboard.

But the partial differential equations

used to foresee global warming

or to recover oil and gas

can only be formulated on the blackboard.

The partial differential equations

used to model global warming

can be formulated exactly on the blackboard.

They cannot be solved

on the blackboard.

As a black research mathematician

in the United States,

it was the toughest mathematical problem

that I ever solved.

My quest for its solution

reduced me to a lone wolf

computational mathematician

that discovered

as a consequence of my monastic interiority.

I was shackled for sixteen years

to two-to-power sixteen

computers.

Each of my 64 binary thousand computers was like a black box

in a dark room,

or a dark sixteen-dimensional universe.

I visualized my ensemble

as a primordial internet

in a sixteen dimensional universe

that were woven together

as one seamless, cohesive whole supercomputer.

I visualized

a one-to-one correspondence

between my 64 binary thousand computers

and the as many vertices

of a cube

that is tightly circumscribed

by a sphere

in a sixteen dimensional universe.

I discovered how to formulate

the partial differential equations

used to discover and recover oil and gas

exactly and correctly

on the blackboard.

They can only be solved

approximately

on one motherboard

which, in turn, earned it my description

as the toughest problem

in calculus.

It was the mathematical equivalent

of pushing the rock

up Mount Kilimanjaro.

In my dreams,

was the recurring theme

in which I visualized

solving primitive

systems of coupled, nonlinear

partial differential equations

that exploded

from 62-mile deep clouds

that enshrouded

a seven thousand

nine hundred and twenty-six (7,926) mile diameter globe

that was my mathematical metaphor

for planet Earth.

I discovered that

an initial-boundary value problem

in calculus,

defined as partial differential equations

with initial and boundary conditions,

can be solved accurately

across

a hyper-global network of

sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

motherboards.

I theorized that

those motherboards

must be uniformly and equidistantly

distributed

across the hypersurface

of a hyper-globe.

I discovered that

a system of coupled, nonlinear

partial differential equations

of a well-posed initial-boundary value

grand challenge problem

could be solved accurately

across

sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

motherboards.

I discovered how to solve them

as an equivalent

sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

challenging problems,

or sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

initial-boundary value problems.

They called me “Calculus”

because I began studying calculus

in June 1970

in Onitsha, Nigeria.

It took me twenty years

beyond the 568-page

blue hardbound book

“An Introduction to the

Infinitesimal Calculus”

to gain the mathematical maturity

that I needed to solve

an initial-boundary value problem.

I had to solve that calculus problem

by first theoretically formulating them

across

sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

blackboards.

Then, I experimentally solved

my sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

initial-boundary value problems

across

sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

motherboards.

My first ten years, or the 1970s,

was on formulating

partial differential equations

on the blackboard.

And my second ten years, or the 1980s,

was on solving

large systems of algebraic equations

that approximated

a system of coupled, non-linear

partial differential equations

on the motherboard.

First, I discovered

how to theorize

the computation-intensive

algebraic approximations

of a grand challenge

initial-boundary value problem

as

sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

challenging problems.

I theorized those problems

to have a one-to-one correspondence

to sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

blackboards.

Then, I discovered

how to experimentally

solve those sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

problems.

I discovered

how to solve them

across sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

motherboards.

I discovered

how to speedup 180 years,

or sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536) days,

of computation on only one computer.

I speeded it up

to just one day of super-computation

across a primordial internet

that is a hyper-global network of

sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

computers.

As a lone wolf

and the first programmer,

I had to be a jack-of-all-computer-sciences

as well as the primordial wizard

that programmed all those

sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

computers.

The most important partial differential equations

are those that encode

the motions of fluids,

as dependent variables.

My partial differential equations

are my sixteenth sense

of communicating with the spirit world

to foresee never before seen motions.

Oil, water, and gas

are fluids in motion.

To recover oil and gas

requires we set them in motion

from the water injection wells

to the oil and gas production wells.

Rivers, lakes, and oceans

are fluids in motion

across the surface of the Earth.

The air and the moisture

that enshroud the Earth

are 62-mile deep ocean of fluids

in circulatory motion

across a globe

that has a diameter of

seven thousand

nine hundred and twenty-six

(7,926) miles.

I began my journey

to the frontiers of the

partial differential equations

of calculus

and beyond the fastest computers.

I began that journey

in June 1970

in Christ the King College,

Onitsha, East-Central State, Nigeria.

At Christ the King College,

they called me “Calculus,”

not “Philip Emeagwali.”

I was called “Calculus”

because I was pre-occupied

with the book titled

“An Introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus”

while Mr. Aniga, our math teacher,

was teaching algebra.

I first learned the expression

“partial differential equations”

from that calculus book.

I continued on March 23, 1974

from Onitsha, Nigeria

to Monmouth, Oregon,

in the Pacific Northwest Region

of the United States.

In the early 1970s,

I lived in the riverine village of Ndoni

in Biafra,

and in the cities of Onitsha, Ibuzor, and Asaba

in Nigeria.

In the mid-1970s,

I lived in the cities of Monmouth, Independence,

and Corvallis in Oregon, United States.

And I lived in the nation’s capital

of Washington, in the District of Columbia,

United States.

In the late 1970s

and in the United States,

I lived in the cities of

Baltimore, Silver Spring,

and College Park, in Maryland.

In those years and places,

I gained the mathematical and scientific maturity

that I used to theorize

global circulation modeling

across

my hyper-global network of

sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

computers

that, in turn, is a primordial internet.

In the late nineteen seventies (1970s)

and early nineteen eighties (1980s),

I learned supercomputer techniques

that I used to solve

a large system algebraic equations.

My algebraic equations approximated

a system of coupled, nonlinear

partial differential equations

that governs the flow of fluids

below the surface of the Earth,

on the surface of the Earth,

or above the surface of the Earth.

My partial differential equations

govern the motions

of air and moisture

in climate models

that, in turn, is used to foresee

global warming.

My partial differential equations

govern the motions

of oil and gas

in petroleum reservoir models

that, in turn, is used to discover

and recover more oil and gas

from production oil fields.

As a research supercomputer scientist,

of the 1970s and 80s,

my quest was the fastest computation.

I achieved that when I discovered

how to theoretically re-formulate

the differential equations

on the blackboard

as algebraic equations

on the blackboard.

But the equations on my blackboard

were destined for my motherboard.

Then, I had to experimentally solve

those algebraic equations

as an equivalent sequence

of floating-point arithmetical operations

on the motherboard.

What made the news headlines

a rarity in computational mathematics

was that I discovered

how to solve those ridiculously large

floating-point arithmetical operations

across

sixty-five thousand

five hundred and thirty-six (65,536)

motherboards.

It was a breakthrough because

all supercomputer textbooks

affirmed Amdahl’s Law

that decreed that

it will forever remain impossible

to program across eight motherboards.

## The Day the Computer Died

Measurable Contributions

to the Computer

The word “computer”

was coined seven centuries ago.

For the past seven decades,

the computer was defined as an electronic machine

that performs fast computations.

And the three grand challenge questions

in supercomputing were these:

“First, how can we manufacture

faster computers?

Second, could eight computers

be used to increase the speed of computations

by a factor of eight?

Third, could it be possible

to use, say, 65,536 computers

to increase the speed of

computations

by a factor of 65,536?”

In the nineteen fifties and sixties and seventies

(1950s and 60s and 70s),

the debate at computer conferences were on how to increase the speed

of the supercomputer

and most, importantly, use the technology to solve the grand challenges of computational physics.

The turning point of this debate

occurred at a computer conference

that took place in Silicon Valley

in April 1967.

At the conference,

one of the leading minds in supercomputing,

named Gene Amdahl,

presented Amdahl’s Law that,

in effect, said that it will be impossible to use eight processors

to increase the speed

of a supercomputer by a factor of eight.

To obey Amdahl’s Law,

Seymour Cray,

who designed seven in ten supercomputers of the 1980s,

only used one vector processor

to power all supercomputers.

In April 1967,

I was a twelve-year-old

living in a refugee camp

in war-torn Biafra

in the West African nation of Nigeria.

Fast forward seven years

from Onitsha, Biafra (Nigeria),

I was programming computers

in Monmouth (Oregon)

in the Pacific Northwest region

of the United States.

Fast forward a quarter of century

from Biafra (Nigeria),

my name, Philip Emeagwali,

came up at a computer conference

in Silicon Valley.

It came up because I discovered

how to use an internet

that’s a global network of

65,536 computers.

And use that internet

to solve grand challenge problems.

And solve those problems

with a speed increase of 65,536.

The contribution to the development

of the computer—that is measured, quantified, and unambiguous—

is the discovery of how to perform

the fastest computations.

There’re misconceptions

and misunderstandings

about tangible contributions

to the development of the computer,

or to the development of the internet

that is a global network of computers.

An intelligence quotient, or IQ,

of one hundred and ninety (190)

is not a contribution to the development of the internet.

Passing a test in computer science

is not a contribution

to the development of the computer. Teaching computer science

is not a contribution

to the development of the computer.

A certificate in computer science

is not a contribution

to the development of the computer.

A certificate is not a contribution because

the knowledge certified by a certificate was once unknown

until it’s inventor contributed it

to the development of the computer.

Being crowned the best computer wizard in the world

is not a contribution

to the development of the computer.

Manufacturing or assembling or selling computers

is not a contribution

to the development of the computer.

However, since the computer

is a machine that performs

fast computation,

discovering faster computers

is a contribution

to the development of the computer.

The thirst to know more about

what makes supercomputers super remain unquenched if the supercomputer was not invented,

in the first place.

The End of Amdahl’s Law

The most important contribution

to the development of the computer

is the discovery of how to speed up computations

and do so across an internet

that’s a global network of computers.

According to Amdahl’s Law

as published in April 1967

by supercomputer pioneer

Gene Amdahl,

it would be impossible to divide

a grand challenge problem in physics

into eight problems

and use eight processors, or computers,

to solve it eight times faster.

The meaning

and the context of a law of physics changes

as the body of knowledge of physics changes.

For example, the algebraic restatement of the Second Law of Motion of physics, Force equals mass times acceleration, was not written in Newton’s Principia.

And the calculus restatement

of that algebraic restatement

of the Second Law of Motion

was not discovered

until mid-19th century.

Similarly, the meaning

and the context of a supercomputer law changes

as the supercomputer technology changes.

Because the meaning of laws and formulas changes with time,

Amdahl’s Law

changed into Amdahl’s formula.

The formula was not even presented

by Gene Amdahl in his April 1967 conference paper.

Again, I use the term Amdahl’s Law

as Gene Amdahl described and introduced it

at a computer conference

in Silicon Valley in April 1967.

The supercomputer textbooks

and the supercomputer scientists

of the nineteen eighties (1980s)

invoked Amdahl’s Law

and Amdahl’s formula

to argue that I, Philip Emeagwali,

could not have succeeded

in programming an internet

that’s a global network of

65,536 computers.

And programming that internet

to solve

a grand challenge problem.

And solve the problem

with a speed increase of

65,536.

My discovery was rejected

in the nineteen eighties (1980s).

It was rejected because I was expected

to provide evidence

that Amdahl’s Law is true.

I was not expected to disprove

Amdahl’s Law.

I tried to make the impossible

possible.

In November 1982,

I gave a lecture

at a scientific conference

that took place near The White House

in Washington, D.C.

In 1982, I was an unknown scientist.

And my lecture drew a grand total of one person.

Yet, nine years later, on July 9, 1991.

I gave a similar lecture

on the same scientific discovery.

In 1991, I was invited to speak

because I had a high name recognition amongst mathematicians.

I gave my lecture at the largest mathematics conference, ever.

It was called the International Congress for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

That conference took place

a short train ride

from The White House,

in Washington, D.C.

In 1991, I was well known to mathematicians.

Because I was well known,

the lecture auditorium

was so packed that I,

their invited speaker, shoved my way to the speaker’s podium.

It was packed because I discovered

a paradigm shift.

I discovered the shift

at the crossroads between mathematics, physics, and computing.

When my lecture ended,

the standing room only auditorium

gave me a standing ovation.

I received their ovation

because I contributed

to the development

of the computer.

I contributed to supercomputing

by theoretically and experimentally discovering

the falsification of Amdahl’s Law

as described in supercomputer textbooks of the 1980s.

In 1989, I experimentally discovered how to record an actual, not theorized, speedup of 65,536.

The supercomputer died in 1989.

The Fastest Computer I Discovered

In nineteen eighty-nine (1989),

it made the news headlines that I,

Philip Emeagwali,

an African Computer Wizard

in the United States,

discovered how to perform

the fastest computations.

The background story

that was not in the cover stories

was that I theorized about

a global network of 65,536 computers.

I experimented with

65,536 processors.

I programmed and discovered

65,536 initial-boundary value

grand challenge problems

could be formulated to be parallel

to an internet

that’s a global network of

65,536 computers.

I tried to keep a long story short.

It took my fifty years

to acquire the knowledge

and the wisdom

that I’m sharing in fifty minutes.

I did not discover an internet

in 50 minutes

and I don’t expect you to understand my discovery in 50 minutes.

It’s impossible

to use only 50 minutes

to convey an infinitude of knowledge.

I accumulated my knowledge

across 50 years.

For half a century,

I learned algebraic equations

and I discovered

partial differential equations

of calculus.

I invented algorithms

for floating-point arithmetical operations within computers

and for email communication primitives across an internet

that’s a global network of 65,536 computers.

And I wrote computer

and internet codes.

My computer code

made the news headlines

as recording the fastest speeds.

My internet code

made the news headlines

as recording the highest speedups.

It will be impossible for you

to understand in fifty-minutes

what took me fifty years

to understand.

Let me give you a partial timeline

of my research in 1979.

I will focus on the early evolution

of initial-boundary value

grand challenge problems.

My timeline began in

eighteen seventy-one (1871)

with the French mathematician

Barre de Saint-Venant

who developed

the partial differential equation

that describes the motion

of water through a river.

My timeline continued

in eighteen eighty-nine (1889)

with the French mathematician

Junius Massau

who discovered

that the partial differential equations

of Barre de Saint-Venant

could be solved by graphical integration.

My timeline continued

in a 70-page engineering bulletin

that was titled

“The Hydraulics of Flood Movements

in Rivers.”

That bulletin was published

in nineteen thirty-four (1934)

by the American H.A.

[Harold Allen] Thomas

who theorized a four-point

finite difference

algebraic approximation

of the partial differential equations

of Barre de Saint-Venant.

My timeline continued

with the American J.J. [James Johnston] Stoker who, in 1957,

used computers to model water waves along Ohio river.

And my timeline continued

with the Nigerian, myself, Philip Emeagwali, who

in nineteen seventy-nine (1979),

wrote computer programs

that solved

the partial differential equations

of Barre de Saint-Venant.

By 1980, my research interest

had grown from modeling waves

across rivers

to modeling waves

across oceans.

I was introduced to ocean waves

during a series of lengthy conversations

that I had

with a Canadian mathematician

named James Elmer Feir.

He came to Washington, D.C.

from Cambridge University, England.

In 1967, James Feir co-discovered

killer waves described

by the phenomenon known as

the Benjamin-Feir instability.

James Feir introduced the terminology “Benjamin-Feir Waves,”

into the lexicon of fluid mechanics.

My interest was in

computation-intensive problems

in physics

that must be solved across

an internet

that’s a global network of

65,536 computers.

By 1981, I had moved on

from using computers to model

oceanic waves

to using computers to model atmospheric waves.

I learned about atmospheric waves

during my five-year-long daily visits

to the Gramax Building

in Silver Spring, Maryland.

The Gramax Building was

the headquarters

of the United States

National Weather Service.

It was a short walk

from my residence.

At the National Weather Service,

I learned that weather forecasting

is one of the computation-intensive grand challenges of physics.

Those geophysics grand challenge problems

took me from hydrology

to oceanography to meteorology

and to geology.

Their common thread

was the fluids that flow

above the surface of the Earth,

on the surface of the Earth,

and below the surface of the Earth.

Their common thread

was the set of laws of physics

that govern motions of the fluids.

Their common thread

was the system of coupled, non-linear partial differential equations

that I reduced

to algebraic approximations

that I reduced to a set of

computation-intensive

floating-arithmetical operations.

The computer died in 1989,

the year I discovered,

how to paradigm shift

and email 65,536 problems

and do so across sixteen times

two-to-power sixteen email wires

that defined and outlined an internet

that’s a global network of

two-to-power sixteen computers.

It took me half a century to discover how these problems could be solved.

It will also take you half a century

to understand how I solved them.

I discovered

how to solve 65,536 problems

and solve them with a one-to-one computer-to-problem correspondence. That discovery enabled me

to discover a speed increase

of a factor of 65,536.

I discovered

how to speedup 65,536 days,

or 180 years,

of computing within one computer

to only one day of computing

across an internet

that’s a global network of

65,536 computers.

I discovered 180 years in one day.

I discovered

how to make grand challenge problems of physics

parallel to an internet

that’s a global network of computers.

My discovery

was described in the June 20, 1990 issue of the Wall Street Journal

as a paradigm shift

that changed the way we look at supercomputers.

In the old paradigm of computing,

the fastest computations were achieved on only a singular computer.

In my new paradigm of computing

across an internet,

I recorded previously unrecorded

speed-ups and speeds

in both email communication

across my primordial internet

and in total arithmetical computations across my computers.

I visualized my computers

to be distributed equal distances apart and across an internet

that I visualized

as metaphorically encircling a globe.

My discovery

did not make the news headlines

when I theorized it.

It made the news headlines

when I experimentally re-confirmed it, ten years later.

Not long ago, I walked inside a public library where I overhead a boy

who was about 12 years old

ask a librarian.

“Is Philip Emeagwali still living?”

I turned towards them and replied:

“Please allow me to introduce myself.

I’m Philip Emeagwali,”

We’ve changed the way we look at supercomputers.

The old supercomputer died.

The discoverer of the new supercomputer is alive.

The supercomputer,

that’s the computer of tomorrow,

died in 1989.

The computer died in 1989.

The computer of tomorrow

will be born as an internet.”